A microarray technology is a rising technology that's used to study the expression of several genes at once. It includes placing thousands of gene sequences in known locations on a glass slide called a gene chip. A sample containing RNA or DNA is placed in contact with the gene chip. The microarray equipments, also known as chips or biochips contain a substrate of interest fixed to a solid matrix such as glass slide, used for antibody detection, genotyping, and comparative genome analysis.
The DNA microarray is a tool used to determine whether the DNA from a specific individual contains a mutation in genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2. The chip contains of a small glass plate encased in plastic. Few companies manufacture microarrays using techniques similar to those used to make computer microchips.
The principle behind the microarray technique is that complementary sequences will attach to each other. The unknown DNA molecules are cut into fragments by restriction endonucleases; fluorescent markers are attached to these DNA fragments. Then the target DNA fragments along with complementary sequences attach to the DNA probes. A microarray technique is the first line genetic test for intellectual disability, developmental delay, and autism spectrum disorders. However, chromosomal microarray testing does not detect fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common cause of intellectual disability.
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